Colonoscopy is similar to Flexible Sigmoidoscopy but examines the entire colon for the presence of polyps or other abnormalities. Large polyps and other growths can be removed and biopsied to rule out cancer with this test. This test is performed under conscious sedation, a form of anesthesia that blocks pain but does not put the brain in as deep of a “sleep” as general anesthesia. This form of anesthesia is safer than general anesthesia and can be reversed with IV medicine rapidly allowing patients to recover quickly. Current recommendation are for persons over the age of 50 to have this test done every 10 years or every 5 years if there is a family history of colon cancer.
EGD involves inserting a tube with a light and a camera at the tip into the esophagus (food tube) and into the stomach. Ulcers of the stomach and esophagus can be seen and biopsied to rule out bacterial infection and cancer. Narrowing of the esophagus can be opened up with the EGD as well. EGD is performed under conscious sedation.
Flexible Sigmoidoscopy is a screening test used to detect colon cancer and pre-cancerous colon polyps. This test involves the insertion of a small tube with a light and camera at the tip. The lower colon is examined for any growths or other abnormalities.
Most cases of hemorrhoids do not require surgical intervention. If surgery is indicated, several alternatives are available. Less severe cases often are treated with an office procedure called rubber-band ligation. A rubber band is placed around the hemorrhoid is sloughed off. Another common technique is to shrink the hemorrhoid with heat by an instrument that uses infrared light/coagulation. More severe hemorrhoids are usually removed in a hospital procedure called hemorrhoidectomy.